Astrakhan – the revival of a free republic. Why was Razin dangerous?

'' & Nbsp; Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, sketch-panel Stepan Razin, 1918. However, the robbery took on a distinct form of an attempt to establish social justice. No sanctions were applied to them & ndash; except that they were forced to return the loot to the owners. He was so accustomed to human torment that in the morning he could not eat anything without being in the dungeon. The nobility was forcibly resettled in the suburbs. Moreover & ndash; the movement, on the whole, was successful, since, at least in their capital, the rebels managed to establish a life that was not just bearable, but a very good one – and ndash; such that people from other lands began to reach out and run to them. But not only because. Once upon a time, a long time ago, in the present Vyatka land there was a special state with a republican system. '' In other words, the punishing hand of the central government fell on the city not so much because it was the “ capital of the revolt '', but because there was a real danger of the provinces separating from the center. Therefore, a fundamentally different formulation would be more correct. Literally. Many who had fled from Astrakhan returned, expecting that it will continue this way. The fact is that Astrakhan surrendered for a reason. '' However, divide not between your “ neighbors '', but between everyone in general. Odoevsky turned around so that even the Dutchman Ludwig Fabricius , who witnessed the beginning, and the height, and the end of the uprising. It was they who became the core of what would later be called the Cossacks. Thus ended what our historiography calls the Peasant War led by Stepan Razin. Why, suddenly, first the royal mercy, and then & ndash; such a reversal? To the Wild Field – to the Volga and the Don. But, firstly, this cannot be compared with the lawlessness that happened after the visit to the city of Prince Odoevsky. He hated Razin, called him a thief and a robber, and hoped for the coming of “ strong royal power. Everyone, even those who were not in Astrakhan at that time. There he ordered, sparing no effort, to beat with a whip, fry, heave. And secondly, the life of the port trading city very quickly entered a calm, peaceful channel. It was a rather restless state for its neighbors. And here begins the cleaning of the city to the state of a bloody desert. The new administration was doing well, and things were going well. And so & ndash; live as you know. As soon as they entered the Kremlin, the Moscow troops instantly occupied all the walls, gates and, in general, all key points and positions. '' How so? '' According to the Dutchman's testimony, this is what the representative of this authority did: “ He raged to horror: he commanded many who should be quartered alive, who should be burned alive, who should have their tongue cut out of their throats, who should be buried alive in the ground. For example: “ In November 1671, the separatist movement of the Cossacks, aimed at tearing away the mouth of the Volga from Russia, was finally suppressed. And by definition, there were no peasants in Astrakhan, the last stronghold of the Razin people. Razin acted in full accordance with the coined phrase: “ Take everything and divide. Trade goes on as usual, and foreign guests are not afraid to come and go in caravans. Specifically & ndash; 441. There is one more thing here that would be nice to remember. But ordinary ushkuyniki fled en masse. Истoчник It was founded by immigrants from Veliky Novgorod, river robbers – ushkuyniks. Merchants and even some of the nobility felt relatively safe. Photo: If you look at the situation from this point of view, then subsequent events will find a logical explanation. To the prayer singing, they carried the icon of the Mother of God “ Life-giving source in miracles. This ensured the loyalty of the population. Each Astrakhan citizen received a part of this good. Astrakhan, taken by Razin in the summer of 1670, being a kind of capital of the rebels, held out to the last. And so they did both with the guilty and with the innocent. In 1489, after a series of punitive campaigns, Prince Ivan III the Great managed to crush the city's resistance and wipe the Vyatka Republic off the face of the earth. But then he could eat and drink for three … After such a long tyranny in the city, no one was left alive except decrepit old women and small children. 350 years ago, on November 27 (old style) in 1671, the clergy moved across the bridge over the Kutum River, which washes one of the shores of the island on which the Astrakhan Kremlin is located. For example, a working man Ivan Strela , who was engaged in cutting fish at the Uchuga in Kamyzyak during the division, received his share of 24 altyns. He has a secret order to conduct as detailed an investigation as possible. Razin's administration represented by the atamans Vasily Us, Ivan Tersky and Fyodor Sheludyak , established quite decent order: “ The self-appointed authorities are sitting decorously and truthfully. The same can be said about other road users. The closest boyar of the tsar. Rurikovich in the XXIII knee. And not only black. And when “ the brave Cossack Stepan Timofeevich '' founded his capital in the lower reaches of the Volga, in front of the tsar Alexei Mikhailovich the ghost of those same ushkuiniks, an independent republic that once threatened Moscow & hellip; In general, the king's actions are quite understandable. But in the summer of 1672, Prince Yakov Odoevsky came from Moscow to the voivodeship in Astrakhan. & Nbsp; However, at the time of November 1671, talking about a peasant war, and even under the leadership of Razin, is at least inaccurate. They repaired the court and reprisals in a divine way and without concealment, but they reward their self-made army with salary as it should be. Precisely because it really was not a “ Russian revolt, senseless and merciless, '' but a real separatist movement that threatens the country's territorial integrity. In 1670, when Razin took Astrakhan, many expected the most banal robbery – what else can a robber do in a conquered city? The property of the governor, large boyars, early people, merchants and clergy was brought to Yamgurchev hill. For eight months, until the summer of 1672, Sheludyak lived quietly in Astrakhan, as if nothing had happened. Because the city, of course, surrendered to the mercy, but God protects those who are taken care of. 'Daring Cossack Stepan Timofeevich' was captured back in April of this year, and quartered in June on Red Square. Yes, after the capture of Astrakhan, Razin executed several hundred people. '' And the priests were followed by armed and ready-to-fight regiments of Moscow archers under the leadership of the governor Ivan Miloslavsky. The Vyatka ushkuiniks sometimes received the exiled princes, who were afraid of the anger of Moscow, or vice versa – concluded military and political alliances with Moscow, or even passed under the authority of Kazan. The capital of the republic was the city of Vyatka, then & ndash; Khlynov, then & ndash; again Vyatka, now & ndash; Kirov. The insurgent city held the siege for several months, the Cossack troops made successful forays, and the surrender was negotiated on quite honorable conditions – ndash; Voivode Miloslavsky guaranteed immunity to everyone, including the 'main thieves', the most notable of which was one of Razin's closest associates, Fyodor Sheludyak … The most interesting thing is that Miloslavsky kept his word.