Avangard, where rockets are made. Report from a secret factory

Tried to make consumer goods — washing machines, dumbbells, meat grinders. There is probably nothing more reliable than a forging press in the world. Just as the ax has not fundamentally changed over several thousand years, so it is here. It is important that rockets produced in Moscow on Clara Zetkin Street always hit the target. Not a single rocket will fly without women's hands. But toys are not made here, but they do something without which the S-300 and S-400 air defense systems would be like a rifle without cartridges. The steering compartment is attached to the engine compartment, and that, in turn, to the aggregate compartment, in which the equipment for flight control, targeting and detonation of the warhead is installed. In 1950, the enterprise was again re-profiled for the manufacture of surface-to-air missiles. Assembly point On the eve of its 80th anniversary, Avangard decided to lift the curtain of secrecy by the edge and show what the holy of holies of the factory — assembly and test shop. Some elite residential complex could stand on this site, especially considering that the city center is within walking distance. What it is? Here, for example, parts of gas-dynamic rudders are processed. Rockets. This is the place where the rocket says goodbye to the enterprise that gave birth to it. — More modern technologies that make the missile a highly accurate weapon are developing much faster. Photo: AiF/Sergey Osipov Here all parts of the rocket are assembled together. More importantly — before international sanctions were imposed on Russia in 2014, the company was able to upgrade equipment. The native army itself eked out a miserable existence. Further, the rocket will be controlled by aerodynamic rudders, that is, the external plumage in the tail section. But he could have shared the fate of many Soviet defense industry enterprises, which were ordered to live long. The Russian army traditionally prefers camouflage TPK. Its wreckage can be seen in the Avangard Museum. It did not help, even though the knives and grates of those meat grinders were made of the best tool steel. How rockets are made Indeed, after the merger of Avangard managed to improve the financial situation. Although, taking into account the fact that the plant makes rockets for export, the color of the TPK can be any. They can be seen during any parade on Red Square — such big green “pencil cases” on the chassis of a powerful tractor. According to the CEO of Avangard Denis Popkov, the guarantee of this lies in three factors: “In the design idea with which the” product “was designed, in the quality control system achieved at the plant and in the experience of people who work at the plant.” Истoчник aif.ru "According to the recollections of people who worked here in the 90s, in some shops there was a thin roof, — says deputy general director of the concern Alexander Vedrov. Machine tools, but you still have to finish the details with a file. When the time of these legendary machines was gone, aircraft guns for the first Soviet Tu-4 strategic bombers were made here. "Toy Factory" — this is the name of the bus stop at the checkpoint of the Avangard Moscow Machine-Building Plant. Here, hot stamping and forging of those parts made of alloyed steels and titanium alloys that will take on extreme mechanical and thermal loads after a rocket launch takes place. It worked those same rudders that are in the steering compartment at the very nozzle of the engine. — It's just amazing how it was possible to save the unique equipment, covering it from snow and rain with whatever it takes. So joining the concern VKO «Diamond — Antey» simply saved Avangard. At “Vanguard” in the forging and pressing shop there is equipment that has been tested for decades. Now they have installed modern vibration dampers, and shaking is not felt at all. Unless some auxiliary mechanisms change. The plant saved a large order for the S-300 from China and the merger with the Air Defense Concern (now «VKO) Almaz-Antey. But without a forge, which gives the details their primary appearance, in any production — nowhere. height=”600″ width=”457″ style=”display: block;” /> Blacksmith shop — the hottest place of the Vanguard. Here, for example, missiles were made for the S-75 air defense system. Before being sent to the final consumer, to the troops, missiles are conveniently placed (in the local slang “roll up”) in the TPK. Unlike their predecessors, they ran on solid fuel and were launched from pressurized transport and launch containers (TLCs). Photo: AiF/Sergey Osipov Rocket forge If the idea of ​​a rocket begins in the head of the general designer, then the rocket as such — in the blacksmith shop. Although the other delights of blacksmithing — the roar and heat of hot metal — have not gone anywhere from the workshop. From biplane to rocket The plant was founded 80 years ago, on January 24, 1942, to assemble and repair aircraft engines for U-2 biplanes. On May 1, 1960, one of them shot down a U-2 reconnaissance aircraft Francis Gary Powers near Sverdlovsk. Anyone who has ever seen the moment of launching a rocket of the S-300 complex must have noticed: having taken off from the transport and launch container at a right angle (it was a catapult), the rocket hangs in the air for a split second, and then abruptly changes course towards the target. «The technology of primary metal processing all over the world is not changing too fast, — says military expert Alexei Leonkov. Photo: AiF/Sergey Osipov OPK and meat grinders The plant survived the nineties with difficulty. In the mid-70s, Avangard began building a new generation of missiles for the S-300 systems. Previously, according to the recollections of old-timers, when these “hammers” were working, the whole plant was shaking so that it was problematic to bring a spoonful of soup to your mouth in the dining room. They order both gray and sandy yellow, and in camouflage under the jungle. It does not matter. The entire system is crowned with a head fairing made of radio-transparent ceramics, under which there is a homing head. Now in the mechanical assembly shop, where they bring to mind all the power elements of missiles, most of the equipment — modern machines with numerical control.