Field work. The first reactor in Eurasia was built in an army tent

2 was allocated a plot of land with an area of ​​120 hectares in the Pokrovsky-Streshnevo area. 2. There, on the north-western outskirts of Moscow (then it was still an outskirts), in just 16 months, an experiment was prepared to launch the first uranium-graphite nuclear reactor F-1 in Eurasia … Its launch took place on December 25, 1946. Everything was done for the first time. According to the recollections of the employees of Laboratory No. They used 450 tons of graphite and almost 50 tons of uranium, which were transferred to the tent literally on hand. & Nbsp; In the second letter, Kapitsa described how it was necessary, in his opinion, to carry out the atomic project, defining in detail an action plan for two years. For the construction of the reactor, which was called the “ boiler '', uranium, high-purity graphite, and a number of new materials were needed. The youngest specialist of the team was only 15 years old. However, Kapitsa was dissatisfied with the methods of Beria's leadership, he spoke very impartially and sharply about the General Commissioner of State Security & nbsp; & mdash; both personally and professionally. The work was carried out in an open field, in a large army tent. So, Laboratory No. Kurchatov, on the other hand, was quite young and famous, as they say, in narrow circles. Igor Kurchatov was appointed scientific supervisor of all works, and Kapitsa , who was not an expert in nuclear physics, was supposed to oversee certain areas (low-temperature technology for separating uranium isotopes). This is how the USSR began the atomic era, which continues to this day. The Committee initially included two physicists. It was necessary to fold, study and disassemble four models of the installation, and only the fifth became a working reactor. It was required to create a new metallurgy from scratch, to establish the production of the purest graphite. Igor Kurchatov sat down at the boiler control panel and began to remove the cadmium rods from the core. Boiler worked for about four hours. For example, the boiler was called an electrolyzer, instead of the word “ uranium '' wrote silicon. 2, organized for the creation of nuclear weapons, and the scientific leader of the atomic project. Kapitsa wrote to Stalin a letter asking to be relieved of his duties on the Committee, but there was no response. On this territory, there was a building of the Institute of Experimental Medicine, almost completed before the war, where laboratories and rooms for employees could be quickly located. 2. Recall that the slightest impurities in this material absorb neutrons, so the nuclear decay reaction would stop. > Igor Kurchatov. On August 20, 1945, the atomic Special Committee under the USSR Council of People's Commissars was created, headed by Lavrenty Beria. All work was carried out in strict secrecy. A little later, Kapitsa wrote a second, more detailed one, after which Stalin agreed to his resignation. The next day, Lavrenty Beria, chairman of the atomic special committee, arrived at Laboratory No. This ambitious project took only 16 months to complete. It consisted of a structure of uranium-graphite lattice, cadmium control rods, remotely operated, experimental channels and wells, & nbsp; to protect from radiation placed below ground level. 2, a special encryption system was used for the records. In February 1943, a young forty-year-old professor was appointed head of Laboratory No. All were forced to sign a non-disclosure receipt of the nature of the work carried out before the launch. In honor of the 75th anniversary of this event, we recall how the history of the birth of atomic energy was created. Three days later, the country's leadership was reported, “ With the help of the built uranium-graphite boiler, we are & nbsp; now able to solve the most important issues & hellip; & nbsp; & nbsp; Nuclear weapons and energy have turned from a dream into a reality. On the evening of December 25, 1946, the last, 62nd layer of the core was laid. The problem is that the plan proposed by Kapitsa, although it was fast enough in execution, was not fast enough for the current political situation around the development of the first Soviet atomic bomb. Kurchatov demonstrated to him a controlled chain reaction of uranium fission. In the shortest possible time, it was necessary to provide geological exploration work & mdash; & nbsp; for uranium mining. At first, scientists conducted experiments, studied the characteristics of uranium blocks, and chose the optimal sizes. The domestic nuclear industry owes much of its birth to Laboratory No. In the documents, the object was called the “ Assembly Workshop '' or 'Building K' & mdash; & nbsp; Kurchatov building. It is believed that at first they wanted to give the leadership of work on the creation of an atomic reactor directly to Peter Kapitsa, a very famous scientist at that time. Истoчник No one had the experience of creating such complex installations as a nuclear reactor. By the end of 1946, construction was completed the world's first special building with a reactor shaft, providing reliable protection from radiation and provided with radiation monitoring devices. When the thermal power released in the boiler reached several tens of watts, Kurchatov stabilized the process: using an emergency protection rod, he muffled the reaction.